ah teaches web design & development (Styling the Webs lecture)

Styling the Webs

Lecture outline

Thinking about our websites as modular components and the fundamentals of styling websites. Lecture slides will be made available on the day of the lecture (May 17).

A very ornage gold and blue curtain

Styling the Webs

For checking-in today

Please form into groups of 3-4 people. As part of these groups you will be:

Checking-in process

  1. Run your P1 submission through the validator. Note any warnings/errors.
  2. View the HTML code and look for...

Appropriate Alt Text

Do your images have appropriate alt-text? Does it describe the content or the function of the image?

Does it describe its function or content?

<a href="home.html">
<img src="banner-image.jpg" alt="Home page">
<img src="logo.jpg" alt="Shoes-r-us">

Or not?

<a href="home.html">
<img src="banner-image.jpg" alt="A photo of shoes walking themselves across the street">
<img src="logo.jpg" alt="logo">

Labels Tied to Inputs

Are labels associated with inputs?

<label for="email">Email address:</label>
<input type="text" id="email" placeholder="name@email.com">

Or not?

<label for="email">Email address:</label>
<input type="text" name="email" placeholder="name@email.com">
<input type="text" placeholder="email address">

Visual direction

Please bring out:

  • Written description of product/service
  • Colour palettes/fonts
  • Imagery and/or art direction


  • Are all the materials complete/prepared?
  • Is the service/product feasibly offered/sold online? Why so/not?
  • Do the palettes, fonts, imagery describe the service? Why so/not?

Lingering questions

Any lingering questions from our review session?

Close up your laptops


Extra IAT-235 bridging support

We recognize that some of you may not have gotten much time working with HTML and CSS in IAT-235. If you need additional support getting up to speed please reach out to us.

I will be on Discord and most available on Tuesdays and Wednesdays if you have quick questions or concerns.

A burning piece of paper

We want to try and move away from the language of 'pages'

Web design and development

You have to learn to embrace flexibility, failure and iteration.

The Firefox virtual reality web browser showcasing its voice search function

Web browsers are everywhere... (from Mozilla)


Cascading Style Sheets

While HTML defines the structure of the content on the page, CSS styles the page to ensure the user get's something usable. Good code will clearly separate semantic markup from styling.

Keeping them apart

A real Romeo/Juliet scenario

Rules for keeping them separate

Let's talk CSS

Oops, this code did not quite load. Please view it at https://codepen.io/andrewhaw/pen/ee24f2587ef3b5062ca772d9dd7dd589

Smart CSS

You want to aim for CSS stylings that are scalable and modular. Here are some divisions suggested as a framework:

  1. Base rules: direct styling of elements for normalizing or defaults
  2. Layout: structural styling for the page (i.e. .grid, .grid-column)
  3. Modules: styling for different components (i.e. .nav-bar, .nav-button)
  4. State Rules: styling different states (i.e. .is-current, .is-opened)

Coding conventions

When you get started on planning out elements

More things to ensure:

CSS sampler

Oops, this code did not quite load. Please view it at https://codepen.io/andrewhaw/pen/62ada58a7aeb3895c7c88edaac85deed

ID vs. class

IDs must always be unique, <section id="kittens"> they can only be specified once. While classes can be used as many times as needed<section class="group">


The order in which things are read

  1. Inline styles: should never be used
  2. ID's: #home, #cool-stuff
  3. Classes, attributes & pseudo-classes: .home, [class], :hover

Oops, this code did not quite load. Please view it at https://codepen.io/andrewhaw/pen/eef2d2786f3f1ca27c334b30f38d66f3

Units in CSS

In the journey to responsiveness, we want to aim for relative and scalable units as much as possible.


Rems — root-ems — are units responsive to the font-size set by the browser which help us establish easy relationships in type.

Oops, this code did not quite load. Please view it at https://codepen.io/andrewhaw/pen/4f1412454dca14e42d3e5d678d364aaf

A red and white picnic blanket

The web is just blocks

The box model

content-box vs border-box

Oops, this code did not quite load. Please view it at https://codepen.io/andrewhaw/pen/a63b4e018122c1404ed8ff7999cafc1f

Developer tools

Your new best friend

Ever wanted to know what the slides would look like with a red background? Right-click and 'Inspect Element' opens up the development tools to mess around with things in.

The display property

Block, inline, and inline-block

Block elements break to the next line, can have a height and width, and by default are full-width.

Block One
Second Block

Inline elements stay in-line with other inline elements, and listen to their content for their sizing.

Inline One
Second Block

Inline-block elemetns stay in-line with other inline elements, can have a height and width, and listen to their content for their sizing.

Inline-block One
Second Inline-block


Why we care

At the end of the day, it's about your mental sanity. But good clean, clear coding conventions, page and file structure typically loads and runs faster.

P1: Process

P1 materials

Some things to think about

You are not required to generate your own images and icons for this project. That being said, the branding must still be your own work. Here are some recommended suggestions:


Please make sure you have: Today's tutorial starter kit

This week's exercise
This week's reading reflection